As women do not have cultural power, there is no version of hegemonic femininity to rival hegemonic masculinity.
Introduction Native Americans long dominated the vastness of the American West. Linked culturally and geographically by trade, travel, and warfare, various indigenous groups controlled most of the continent west of the Mississippi River deep into the nineteenth century.
Spanish, French, British, and later American traders had integrated themselves into many regional economies, and American emigrants pushed ever westward, but no imperial power had yet achieved anything approximating political or military control over the great bulk of the continent.
But then the Civil War came and went and decoupled the West from the question of slavery just as the United States industrialized and laid down rails and pushed its ever-expanding population ever farther west.
Indigenous Americans had lived in North America for over ten millennia and, into the late nineteenth century, perhaps as many asNatives still inhabited the American West.
The United States removed Native groups to ever-shrinking reservations, incorporated the West first as territories and then as states, and, for the first time in its history, controlled the enormity of land between the two oceans. The history of the late-nineteenth-century West is many-sided.
Tragedy for some, triumph for others, the many intertwined histories of the American West marked a pivotal transformation in the history of the United States. No longer simply crossing over the continent for new imagined Edens in California or Oregon, they settled now in the vast heart of the continent.
Many of the first American migrants had come to the West in search of quick profits during the midcentury gold and silver rushes. As in the California rush of —, droves of prospectors poured in after precious-metal strikes in Colorado inNevada inIdaho inMontana inand the Black Hills in While women often performed housework that allowed mining families to subsist in often difficult conditions, a significant portion of the mining workforce were single men without families dependent on service industries in nearby towns and cities.
There, working-class women worked in shops, saloons, boardinghouses, and brothels. Many of these ancillary operations profited from the mining boom: Millions of animals had roamed the Plains, but their tough leather supplied industrial belting in eastern factories and raw material for the booming clothing industry.
Specialized teams took down and skinned the herds.
The infamous American bison slaughter peaked in the early s. The number of American bison plummeted from over ten million at midcentury to only a few hundred by the early s. The expansion of the railroads allowed ranching to replace the bison with cattle on the American grasslands.
This s photograph illustrates the massive number of bison killed for these and other reasons including sport in the second half of the nineteenth century. Photograph of a pile of American bison skulls waiting to be ground for fertilizer, s.
The nearly seventy thousand members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints more commonly called Mormons who migrated west between and were similar to other Americans traveling west on the overland trails.
They faced many of the same problems, but unlike most other American migrants, Mormons were fleeing from religious persecution. Mormons believed that Americans were exceptional—chosen by God to spread truth across the world and to build utopia, a New Jerusalem in North America.
However, many Americans were suspicious of the Latter-Day Saint movement and its unusual rituals, especially the practice of polygamy, and most Mormons found it difficult to practice their faith in the eastern United States.
Thus began a series of migrations in the midnineteenth century, first to Illinois, then Missouri and Nebraska, and finally into Utah Territory. Once in the west, Mormon settlements served as important supply points for other emigrants heading on to California and Oregon.
Brigham Young, the leader of the Church after the death of Joseph Smith, was appointed governor of the Utah Territory by the federal government in He encouraged Mormon residents of the territory to engage in agricultural pursuits and be cautious of the outsiders who arrived as the mining and railroad industries developed in the region.
Family farms were the backbone of the agricultural economy that expanded in the West after the Civil War. Innortherners in Congress passed the Homestead Act, which allowed male citizens or those who declared their intent to become citizens to claim federally owned lands in the West.
Hundreds of thousands of Americans used the Homestead Act to acquire land. The treeless plains that had been considered unfit for settlement became the new agricultural mecca for land-hungry Americans.The distinction between sex and gender differentiates a person's biological sex (the anatomy of an individual's reproductive system, and secondary sex characteristics) from that person's gender, which can refer to either social roles based on the sex of the person (gender role) or personal identification of one's own gender based on an internal awareness (gender .
Everyone is familiar with the behavior of a group of young girls or teens who, giggling or even shrieking, are excited about clothes, make-up, hair, ribbons, jewelry, music, boys, nails, pink things, or other characteristically feminine diversions. This is "girly" behavior; and traditional feminism is about as sympathetic to it as would be a Marine drill sergeant.
1. Embodied vs Traditional Cognitive Science. Consider four evocative examples of phenomena that have motivated embodied cognitive science. We typically gesture when we speak to one another, and gesturing facilitates not just communication but language processing itself (McNeill ).
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Since the rise of the Religious Right in the s, analysis of American fundamentalism has neglected a large body of literature about gender roles . 1. Embodied vs Traditional Cognitive Science.
Consider four evocative examples of phenomena that have motivated embodied cognitive science. We typically gesture when we speak to one another, and gesturing facilitates not just communication but language processing itself (McNeill ).