There are identifiable cognitions curiosity, weakening of intention not to smoke that predict future smoking, whether it be first experimentation or progression to a higher level of smoking experience eg, puffer, experimenter, to occasional and then regular smoker, etc.
However, as emphasized throughout this report, responsibility for preventing and reducing underage drinking lies with everyone, as a national community.
For example, although minimum drinking age laws enacted and enforced by government underpin society's efforts, their effectiveness depends on the active support of parents and other adults, businesses, and many other organizations in every community.
In addition to their roles in enacting and enforcing pertinent laws, federal and state governments have many other important opportunities to stimulate and solidify the strategy. They can fund statewide or national media campaigns, provide financial support and other assistance to communities to help them mobilize to reduce underage drinking, set up the necessary apparatus to monitor trends in underage drinking and the effectiveness of efforts to reduce it, and support necessary research.
In this chapter we lay out the roles for the federal and state governments in the overall strategy. Two of these roles are to coordinate and monitor the various components, including providing the data and research needed to assess and improve the strategy.
The third role is to increase alcohol excise taxes to both reduce consumption and provide funds to support the strategy. There is strong and well-documented evidence of the effects of raising taxes on consumption, particularly among youth. According to a recent report by the U. Departments of Justice, Health and Human Services, Transportation, Labor, Defense, Treasury, Agriculture, and Interior, as well as the Executive Office of the White House and the Corporation for National Service funded efforts that include underage alcohol use within broader mandates that target alcohol and other drug use.
A relatively small proportion—less than 7 percent of the total amount—in three federal departments both had a specific focus on alcohol and identified youth or youth and the broader community as the specific target population.
Research is primarily investigator-initiated and includes such topics as the effectiveness of various media campaigns; education interventions, and environmental strategies, as well as research on the epidemiology and causes of underage drinking. NIAAA also has supported two notable efforts to influence local action.
The first is a comprehensive effort to review approaches to drinking on college campuses, which resulted in the publication of A Call to Action: Changing the Culture of Drinking at U. NIAAA is currently in the process of conducting regional meetings to disseminate the report's findings nationwide.
SAMHSA staff reported funding a wide variety of interventions including initiatives aimed at education and awareness, supporting community-based initiatives, developing guides and toolkits, and furthering research objectives. Several of these initiatives involve collaboration with other HHS agencies e.
According to the report U. GAO,p. A national training and technical assistance center, the Center for Enforcing the Underage Drinking Laws Program is funded through this program. They administer a formula and incentive grant program, award discretionary grants and contracts and enter into cooperative agreements with other entities U.
Several agencies also provide resources to advance efforts to prevent underage drinking. Both NIAAA and SAMHSA have published several technical assistance documents highlighting various aspects of underage drinking and approaches to reducing underage drinking and have multiple mechanisms in place to disseminate this information.
NHTSA has published several documents aimed at reducing drinking and driving.
In addition, the Department of Education, through its Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention, provides training and technical assistance related to reducing drinking on college campuses.
However, there is no coordinated, central mechanism for disseminating research findings or providing technical assistance to grantees or others interested in developing strategies that target underage drinking.
|Government action to reduce smoking. - PubMed - NCBI||The report is included in the MMWR series of publications so that the material can be readily accessible to the public health community.|
|Federal Government Takes Bigger Role in Combating Obesity||Ways for Governments to Help Their Citizens to Quit Smoking It is almost impossible for any country to ban cigarette smoking completely due to the existing addiction and high revenue collection through tax. If the law were to be imposed, there would probably be rioting and some deadly addicts might even collapse; moreover, it would be too great a loss of income to develop the country.|
In sum, numerous federal agencies fund multiple research, intervention, and technical assistance efforts to reduce underage drinking. Although coordination mechanisms are in place for specific initiations, and agency staff report regular staff-level communication, the committee is not aware of any ongoing effort to coordinate all of the various federal efforts either within or across departments.
The multitude of agencies and initiatives involved suggests the need for an interagency body to provide national leadership and provide a single federal voice on the issue of underage drinking.
A federal interagency coordinating committee on prevention of underage drinking should be established, chaired by the secretary of the U. Department of Health and Human Services. Membership on the coordinating committee should include senior officials from each of the agencies included in the GAO report.
The coordinating committee also should periodically consult with the range of national nongovernmental organizations—including National Alcohol Beverage Control Association, Mothers Against Drunk Driving, Students Against Destructive Decisions, Distilled Spirits Council of the United States, Century Council, National Beer Wholesalers Association—who sponsor initiatives aimed at preventing underage drinking to facilitate a coordinated, research-based approach by all key players.
Once the recommended nonprofit foundation is established, the foundation should also be regularly consulted. The committee recommends that the secretary of HHS chair the coordinating committee for several reasons.
First, HHS plays the federal government's lead role in the prevention of substance abuse. Although other agencies have programs that target underage drinking, their primary missions are not related to substance abuse.
The initiatives funded by and evaluated by HHS have the widest scope. HHS also administers the major national surveys that are likely to be used to monitor changes in the prevalence or intensity of youth drinking and has the greatest resources available to fund the research necessary for continued improvement of the strategy.
Which HHS agency should have operational responsibility for the coordinating committee should be determined by the secretary.
This body would provide technical assistance, training, and evaluation support and would monitor progress in implementing national goals.Government action to reduce smoking.
Sandford A(1). However, the picture is far from uniform and some of the best examples of strong, government-led action have occurred in less developed nations. Governments can learn much from these countries and, by supporting the impending global treaty on tobacco control, can help to reduce the smoking.
Each day that we delay in developing a comprehensive national response to this problem, 3, additional teens and preteens become regular smokers. This report of the Surgeon General on smoking and health, Reducing Tobacco Use certainly well above current cigarette taxes.
The health benefits of higher cigarette taxes are substantial. By. By reducing smoking, particularly among youth and young adults, past tax increases have significantly reduced smoking-related morbidity and mortality. Further increases in taxes, indexed to account for the effects of inflation, would lead to substantial long-run improvements in health.
Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults Every day, more than 1, people in this country die due to smoking. For each of those deaths, at least two youth or young adults become regular smokers each day. Because of nicotine addiction, about three out of four teen smokers end up smoking into adulthood, even if they intend to.
Federal Government Takes Bigger Role in Combating Obesity Far-reaching Initiatives Aim to Halt National Epidemic They are providing critical leadership and resources to combat the problem of. The Role of the Government in Reducing the Problem of Teen Smoking in the Country PAGES 3.
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