Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids[ edit ] Viscosity, the slope of each line, varies among materials. Newton's law of viscosity is a constitutive equation like Hooke's lawFick's lawand Ohm's law: Gaseswaterand many common liquids can be considered Newtonian in ordinary conditions and contexts. There are many non-Newtonian fluids that significantly deviate from that law in some way or other.
After the second stage, it enters into a state of free fall. See answers and explanations below. This problem can be approached by either the use of a velocity-time graph or the use of kinematic equations or a combination of each.
Whatever the approach, it is imperative to break the multistage motion up into its three different acceleration periods. The use of kinematic equations is only appropriate for constant acceleration periods.
For this reason, the complex motion must be broken up into time periods during which the acceleration is constant. These three time periods can be seen on the velocity-time graph by three lines of distinctly different slope. The diagram at the right provides a depiction of the motion; strategic points are labeled.
These points will be referred to in the solutions below. The velocity-time plot below will be used throughout the solution; note that the same strategic points are labeled on the plot. The maximum speed occurs after the second stage or acceleration period point C. After this time, the upward-moving rocket begins to slow down as gravity becomes the sole force acting upon it.
The maximum altitude occurs at point D, sometime after the second stage has ceased and the rocket finally runs out of steam. This distance is the distance for the first stage, the second stage and the deceleration period C to D.
These distances correspond to the area on the v-t graph; they are labeled A1, A2, and A3 on the graph. They are calculated and summed below. When the rocket reaches point D, the time is The altitude at This distance would be represented by a negative area on the velocity-time graph.
The area is a triangle and can be computed if the velocity at 20 seconds is known. It can be calculated using a kinematic equation and then used to determine the area of a triangle. Alternatively, a kinematic equation can be used to determine the distance fallen during these 3.
The work is shown below: The rocket rises m in the first In the time subsequent of this, the rocket must fall meters. The time to fall m can be found from the same kinematic equation used in part c.a represents the object's uniform acceleration ; t represents the interval of time (t 2 - t 1) over which the object's velocity changed ; v f represents the object's final velocity at the end of the time interval ; v o represents the object's initial velocity at the beginning of the time interval.
Reaction time has been widely studied, as its practical implications may be of great consequence, e.g.
a slower than normal reaction time while driving can have grave results. Many factors have been shown to affect reaction times, including age, gender, physical fitness, fatigue, distraction, alcohol, personality type, and whether the stimulus.
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Honors Physics - Kinematic Equations Developing the Toolset Motion graphs such as the position-time, velocity-time, and acceleration-time graphs are terrific tools for understanding motion. Type or paste a DOI name into the text box. Click Go. Your browser will take you to a Web page (URL) associated with that DOI name.
Send questions or comments to doi. Kinematic viscosity is a measure of the resistive flow of a fluid under the influence of gravity. It is frequently measured using a device called a capillary viscometer — basically a graduated can with a narrow tube at the bottom.