Most of the people do not know that Ethiopians had developed beautiful and perfect alphabets and have been using them for thousands of years. Unlike the ancient Egyptian and Chinese alphabets and its Japanese modifications where pictures were drawn to write down ideas, the ancient Ethiopians came up with a character for every possible sound. They figured out that there are eight varieties, orders or vowels of some forty Ethiopian primary [alphabets or] characters. The primary or the first order characters are altered into second order character by adding a second small uniform piece at the lower right corner of the character in a simple pattern to create a uniform pattern of sound.
No distinction is made in surviving runic inscriptions between long and short vowels, although such a distinction was certainly present phonologically in the spoken languages of the time.
The term runes is used to distinguish these symbols from Latin and Greek letters. It is attested on a 6th-century Alamannic runestaff as runa and possibly as runo on the 4th-century Einang stone.
The name comes from the Germanic root run- Gothic: Ogham is a Celtic script, similarly carved in the Norse manner. The root run- can also be found in the Baltic languagesmeaning "speech".
In Lithuanianrunoti means both "to cut with a knife " and "to speak". Elder Futhark The runes developed centuries after the Old Italic alphabets from which they are probably historically derived.
The debate on the development of the runic script concerns the question regarding which of the Italic alphabets should be taken as their point of origin and which, if any, signs should be considered original innovations added to the letters found in the Italic scripts.
The historical context of the script's origin is the cultural contact between Germanic people, who often served as mercenaries how to write amharic alphabet on computer the Roman armyand the Italian peninsula during the Roman imperial period 1st century BC to 5th century AD.
Giuliano and Larissa Bonfante suggest that runes derived from some North Italic alphabet, specifically Venetic: There are no horizontal strokes: This characteristic is also shared by other alphabets, such as the early form of the Latin alphabet used for the Duenos inscriptionbut it is not universal, especially among early runic inscriptions, which frequently have variant rune shapes, including horizontal strokes.
Runic manuscripts that is written rather than carved runes, such as Codex Runicus also show horizontal strokes. The " West Germanic hypothesis" speculates on an introduction by West Germanic tribes. This hypothesis is based on claiming that the earliest inscriptions of the 2nd and 3rd centuries, found in bogs and graves around Jutland the Vimose inscriptionsexhibit word endings that, being interpreted by Scandinavian scholars to be Proto-Norseare considered unresolved and long having been the subject of discussion.
Another theory presumes a Northwest Germanic unity preceding the emergence of Proto-Norse proper from roughly the 5th century.
Makaev, who presumes a "special runic koine ", an early "literary Germanic" employed by the entire Late Common Germanic linguistic community after the separation of Gothic 2nd to 5th centurieswhile the spoken dialects may already have been more diverse.
These inscriptions are generally in Elder Futharkbut the set of letter shapes and bindrunes employed is far from standardized. Theories of the existence of separate Gothic runes have been advanced, even identifying them as the original alphabet from which the Futhark were derived, but these have little support in archaeological findings mainly the spearhead of Kovelwith its right-to-left inscription, its T-shaped tiwazand its rectangular dagaz.
If there ever were genuinely Gothic runes, they were soon replaced by the Gothic alphabet. The letters of the Gothic alphabet, however, as given by the Alcuin manuscript 9th centuryare obviously related to the names of the Futhark.
The names are clearly Gothic, but it is impossible to say whether they are as old as the letters themselves. A handful of Elder Futhark inscriptions were found in Gothic territory, such as the 3rd- to 5th-century Ring of Pietroassa. In this stanza, Odin recounts a spell: Due to this, it is possible that the early runes were not used so much as a simple writing system, but rather as magical signs to be used for charms.
Although some say the runes were used for divinationthere is no direct evidence to suggest they were ever used in this way. The name rune itself, taken to mean "secret, something hidden", seems to indicate that knowledge of the runes was originally considered esoteric, or restricted to an elite.
Haidzruno runu, falahak haidera, ginnarunaz. Arageu haeramalausz uti az. I, master of the runes? Incessantly plagued by maleficence, doomed to insidious death is he who breaks this monument.
There also are some inscriptions suggesting a medieval belief in the magical significance of runes, such as the Franks Casket AD panel. Much speculation and study has been produced on the potential meaning of these inscriptions.
Rhyming groups appear on some early bracteates that also may be magical in purpose, such as salusalu and luwatuwa. Further, an inscription on the Gummarp Runestone — AD gives a cryptic inscription describing the use of three runic letters followed by the Elder Futhark f-rune written three times in succession.
There are at least three sources on divination with rather vague descriptions that may, or may not, refer to runes: The first source, Tacitus's Germania, describes "signs" chosen in groups of three and cut from "a nut-bearing tree", although the runes do not seem to have been in use at the time of Tacitus' writings.However, the messages you send will appear normally on a computer and you can also attach PDF files of your Amharic messages to emails so that they can be read on iPhones and other mobile devices.
Each one of the 34 primary Amharic characters "ሀ" to "ፐ" ("he" to "pe") has its own key name and assignment on the computer keyboard just like the "A" to "Z" English capital letters key assignments and key names. This is a brilliant dictionary Endale Zenawi whose work established Ethiopian linguistics as an essential part of Semitic studies was a great friend and collaborator of Wolf Leslau and both these individuals went on to write the best two dictionaries on Amharic.
Amharic Write equip users with the ability to write Ethiopian alphabet with ease and speed on a computer.
The Amharic Write Software is built to eliminate the need to have prior knowledge of the English pronunciation in order to properly combine english letters to get the correct Ethiopian Alphabets. Typing in Amharic The Amharic keyboard () uses a system where the Amharic sounds are matched to available on the computer.
Unicode defines letters for Ethiopic writing in many languages. This is too many letters for Amharic so to avoid typing unexpected letters. Note that this is not the same as translation -- it is the sound of the words that is converted from one alphabet to the other, not their meaning.
Before download and install select 32 bit or 64 bit to version that compatible to your computer Click the download button to download Free Amharic Software from Google. How I can write and.